- October 18, 2019
- Posted by: Web Admin
- Category: Interesting Psychology Research Topics
Some letters, like “c” and “q”, are totally missing from Gregg; there’s absolutely no sound for “c” besides those currently represented by “k” and “s”. Having said that, you can find typical phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that need a mixture of letters when you look at the Roman alphabet, but could each be written having a solitary page in Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six complex symbols strung along with seven brief ligatures, is rendered with two brief strokes in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes further, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to access the nugget that is phonetic of word: “bed” is created as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another 10 % associated with time that is note-taker’s.
However the biggest effect from Gregg shorthand originates from its systematic method of abbreviation. As an example, nearly every page in Gregg, published by it self, represents a word that is common. Most are utilized for a few words that are different with respect to the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can suggest “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it“at or”.” This way, almost 100 of the very typical terms in English could be rendered in a stroke that is single. Likewise, most typical English terms have actually an abbreviated spelling of 1 or two shots. The Gregg version that is elegant of,” for example, stands for “bring” and it is written in an immediate. Right right Here it really is once again:
And, since 60 per cent of talked English is composed of about 600 among these typical words, brief forms play a massive role is quickening Gregg. “Brief type” is obviously a technical term in Gregg. Everyone can discover the Gregg alphabet in a day and probably double their speed that is writing to be really fast—like the residual number of Gregg-powered court reporters when you look at the federal courts whom remove testimony at significantly more than 200 terms per minute—you need certainly to memorize dozens or a huge selection of common abbreviations.
That sounds difficult until such time you understand that your face is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, nearly all of that you simply discovered naturally while you required them. Gregg is not any various. Therefore the Gregg variations are in minimum more systematic, so that they accrue quickly.
However the form that is brief a lot more than a easy abbreviation, it is the distillation associated with fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever compose a lot more than is important to know it later on. Utilizing this concept, tens and thousands of long, Latinate terms are reduced to 3 or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief types had been particularly crucial within the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been additionally epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.
One particularly fertile method of abbreviation in Gregg may be the usage of solitary letters as stand-ins for typical prefixes or suffixes, dependent on whether they’re written before or following the terms they modify. As prefixes, these letters could be either attached with or detached from the term. As an example, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but additionally such as “grandiloquent,” and sometimes even “granular” (and this can be written “g” above “l-r.”)
An attached “k” at the beginning of a word can be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” so “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and is the short form for Congress on the other hand. But a detached “k” written above a word may be the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written over a “b”, for instance, is read “contrib” and it is the quick type for “contribute” or “contribution.”
It’s much the exact same with suffixes. A“g that is detached at the termination of a term is short for “gram,” as with “program.” A“k that is detached is short for “ical,” as in “medical.” And a“o” that is detached the area of “ology,” as in “biology.”
These kinds may also together be added to produce longer terms.
“Biological” is written “b-i” followed closely by a detached “o-k.” In this manner, very very long, complex terms are paid down to 2 or 3 fast flicks for the pen, yet stay totally legible to anybody who knows the Gregg system. Combined, the forms that are brief the abbreviation concept take into account about 50 % of Gregg’s benefit over longhand. Not merely would be the letters simple and simply joined up with, you can find less of those to publish.
The element that is final makes Gregg therefore blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” That way, numerous typical expressions can be dashed down in some strokes without ever raising the pen from the web web web page. For instance, the phrase “it will be” consists of three typical words, all of and this can be written individually with an individual letter: “i,” written with a brief, right, upward swing that slopes to the right, represents “it;” “l,” an extended, horizontal, upward-facing bend, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be.” Phrasing enables you to join all three of the letters in a single elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.
Listed here is “it would be” regarding the line that is first with “We have been” below it:
And you can find literally tens of thousands of these expressions in Gregg shorthand. Above all, unlike brief kinds, they don’t need memorization that is much they’re the merchandise of the few easy rules.
because of the right time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from their headquarters on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into almost every college, company and courthouse in the united states. As he had been fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put away hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, research guides, publications, and shorthand variations of traditional literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a nationwide infrastructure of certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the skills of all of the shorthand that is professional. In the event that you wished to be an professional secretary, you required a certification from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 words each and every minute. In the event that you wished to be considered a court reporter, you needed to show you can compose an astonishing 225 terms each minute with a lot better than 98 % precision. Entirely, huge numbers of people passed away through Gregg training therefore the Gregg official certification system.
For pretty much a hundred years, Gregg had been a important element of us culture. Since recently as the 1970s, nearly every school that is high the nation taught Gregg. Undoubtedly, every company school & most universities offered Gregg-certified shorthand courses. But Gregg’s decline started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, right after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices within the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand through the courtroom (though you may still find a few “pen article writers” when you look at the federal court system). The Dictaphone as well as other recording products made note that is verbatim less and less essential in any office. Plus some social individuals say improvements in women’s rights additionally played a job when you look at the decrease of Gregg. In an occasion once they had been rejected jobs in industries such as the legislation or medication, the smartest, many skilled females usually wound up as secretaries or professional assistants and became gifted shorthand professionals. Those left behind never became quite as fast or skilled at the complexities of Gregg in the 1960s and 1970s, as these women began to move on to better opportunities.
The death that is real for Gregg, though, had been the arrival associated with laptop or computer within the 1980s. Also executives that are high-level much much longer dictated letters with their secretaries; they penned them on the own on the desktop computers. Organizations which used to possess ratings of skilled shorthand article writers eliminated their pools that are steno. Today, i am maybe not alert to any school that is high teaches Gregg. It is extremely difficult to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community universities in new york, where Gregg authors will always be prized by some glove that is white companies. The book that is only posted because of the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill could be the Gregg handbook, a workplace guide which contains no mention of shorthand.
But, as being a technology for composing fast with pen and paper—still a skill that is fundamental reporters like me—Gregg shorthand never been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to purchase a classic Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even though you simply discover the essentials, Gregg will most likely increase your note speed that is taking. With repetition and day-to-day usage, it is not unusual to achieve speeds of 100 terms one minute or maybe more. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the complement that is perfect the twenty-first Century technology associated with the smartpen.
In the end, shorthand—at least my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. And even though, for quick stretches, i could compose 120 terms each and every minute, the normal American now talks at a lot more than 150 terms one minute, therefore one thing is inevitably lost when you look at the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, however, we don’t need certainly to worry. In most cases, once I bypass to writing the storyline, i could depend on my notes that are handwritten brief quotes and history information. Nevertheless when we need a lengthier, verbatim quote, I am able to make use of my notes as some sort of index to get the right area of the interview, and touch there with my pen to know the playback. No further associated with the forward/reverse party with a digital recorder when it is time for you to transcribe. It is an almost perfect system.